|１. Wind Instruments
A Sho is a reed-free mouth organ. The shape is made from 17 pieces of bamboo, which are inlaid into a small jar. This instrument is used mainly to perform cords.
A Hichiriki is a flageolet-like instrument. A reed pipe is inserted into a short piece of bamboo and is designed to make a vigorous sound.
A Ryuteki is a flute like instrument. Used mainly in Togaku music, it has seven finger holes. The sound it makes is said to be similar to the voice of a crying dragon. The tones of a Tyuteki posess a refreshing quality.
A Koma-bue is a flute with six finger holes. It is shorter in length than a Tyuteki and its tone is more delicate.
A Kagura-bue is an indigenous Japanese instrument. It is also a flute with six finger holes, but is the longest of those mentioned above. It has a soft tone.
|２. String Instruments
The Biwa is a Japanese lute. The type of Biwa used for Gagaku performances is known as a Gaku-Biwa and is the largest type of Biwa. It is given this name to distinguish it from other smaller Biwa used for storytelling. It has four strings and is used as a rhythm instrument.
A So is a Japanese harp. A So used for Gagaku performances is known as a Gaku-So, even though it is basically the same as an ordinary So. It has thirteen strings made from silk and is used as a rhythm instrument.
A Wagon is a six-stringed flat zither with moveable bridges, it is indigenous to Japan. It is played with a small tortoiseshell plectrum or kotosagi. It is generally used in all indigenous music and dance forms with the exception of Yamatomai.
|３. Percussion Instruments
A Kakko is a small barreled drum with two vertical drum heads on eitheer side. It is struck with two drumsticks. The Kakko leads the ensemble and plays the role of the conductor.
A San-no-ko is a small double-headed drum. It is struck by one drumstick (bachi) on the right side.
A Tsuri-daiko is a large drum also known as a Gaku-daiko. It is hung on a wooden frame with legs and is played by two plectrums on only one side.
A Shoko is a small brass gong suspended in a wooden framed stand. It is struck on the inside of the gong by two sticks.
Shaku-Byoshi are tow flat pieces of wood that are struck together and used as a percussion instrument.